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"...Moderna specializes in the installation of interlocking concrete pavers for driveways, walkways, pool decks, patios, and entry features. Services include; design and project planning, demolition and removal of existing surface, excavating and site preparation, site leveling and grading, drainage routing and installation, interlocking concrete paver and slab pavement installation, clean-up and landscape finishing, sealing, cleaning, maintenance and repair..." Read More

Moderna Pavers of Jacksonville has been designing and creating beautiful brick paver and retaining wall projects in Jacksonville backyards for many years.  They also specialize in brick paver driveways and other large scale projects with an all in-house approach and impressive equipment array.  You can visit the Moderna Pavers website for more information and photos showcasing their work. 

Wednesday
Dec262007

Brick Paver Glossary

 

Abrasion: Grinding scuffing the paver surface with the use of a mechanical tool.

Absorption: Water or liquid being drawn into the surface of a paver. Referred to as a ‘rate of absorption’ or as a percentage rate.

Acidic Soil: Indicating that the PH in soil in higher than 8

Aggregate: A general term for crushed stone, rock or coarse sand. Used as a base or sub-base of varying consistencies underneath the pavers or retaining wall.

Angularity: Describes the sharp edges of the aggregate and sand consistency, used for base and underlayment materials. Meaning that the stone, rock, sand is not rounded.

Aspect Ratio: The length of a paver unit divided by the thickness of the paver unit.

Asphalt: Blacktop, a pavement often used in roadways.

Backfill: Usually filling behind a retaining wall or paver project with soil, aggregate, or sand depending on the scope of the project.

Bank Slide: Is caused by erosion. The face of the bank falls down due to hydrostatic force or gravity.

Base or Base Material: A layer of aggregate, of particular thickness, to suite the installation requirements.

Bedding Sand: This layer contains coarsely-grained sand, which provides a setting bed for paver units. The sand bedding is always leveled, for a smooth surface.

Biodegradable: Able to decompose naturally. Biodegradable material is removed from a paver or wall project to prevent settling or rutting.

Blending Pavers: Setting or laying pavers using two or more colored pavers or a paver color blend.

Bluestone: A type of rock known as dolerite, it appears blue when wet or broken.

Brick Paver: A brick, tile, stone, clay, or block used for paving horizontal surfaces such as driveways, patios, courtyards, streets, walkways, and pooldecks.

Bulge or Belly: This occurs in concrete pavers, where there has been to much water mixed into the concrete mix, resulting in convex sides.

Bundle: Refers to a stack or load of pavers, wrapped and strapped for shipment. Typically also referred to as a pallet.

Cambridge Pavers: A 100% manufactured paving stone, with an extra dense top layer of Armortec.

Cantera Stone: A natural stone, quarried in Mexico.

Cation: When the metal ions in storm water runoff attach themselves to soil particles, which become positively charged atoms.

Cement-Aggregate Ratio: The weight ratio of cement and aggregate in concrete.

Chamfer: A beveled edged paver, which allows water drainage, snow removal and reduces the occurrence of chipping pavers.

Clay: The putty-like portion of soil particles that when watered and air-dried, can exhibit a strong plastic-like nature.

Cluster: A group of pavers forming a single layer that is grabbed, held, and placed by a paver-laying machine typically on a sand bedding course.

Coarse Aggregate: Aggregate predominantly retained on the U.S. Standard No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve; or that portion of an aggregate retained on the No. 4 (4.75 mm) sieve.

Cobblestone: Stones taken from riverbeds and used to pave early streets.

Cohesive Soil: Soil that naturally binds together. Is resistant to being dragged apart.

Compaction: The use of a piece of equipment to intensely pack soil, base material and sand bedding. Often using a powered tamper or plate compactor to achieve density for laying pavers.

Compressive Strength: The measured resistance of pavers to loads, referred to in pounds per square inch.

Concrete: Made from cement binder and aggregate, it then hydrates and hardens into the stone surface. The traditional term for concrete was ‘liquid stone’.

Concrete Pavers: Concrete paving units, rectangular, square or dentated, capable of being placed with one hand into a laying pattern. The surface area is typically 100 in. 2 (0.065 m 2 ) and the overall length to thickness is 4 or less. Compare to Paving Slab.

Concrete Sand: Washed sand used in the manufacture of ready-mix concrete which conforms to the grading requirements of ASTM C 33 or CSA A23.1. See Bedding Sand.

Course: A row of pavers.

Creep: Refers to the slow shifting of paver units over a long period of time.

Crushed Stone: Often used as an aggregate and as the base material for laying pavers. Commonly used for their sharp edged consistency, making compaction so much easier.

Deflection: When a pavement is moved only temporarily because of traffic loads.

Deformation: When the shape and structure of a pavement is altered.

Degradation Testing: Testing for changes in particle sizes, of aggregates and sand, due to the impact of loads over a period of time.

Denated Paver: A paver that is not rectangular or square in shape.

Density: For every unit of volume the mass is measured.

Detention Pond or Structure: The temporary storage of stormwater runoff in an area with the objective of decreasing peak discharge rates and providing a settling basis for pollutants.

Drainage Coefficient: Factor used to modify layer coefficient of pavements. It expresses how well the pavement structure can handle the adverse effect of water infiltration. See Layer Coefficient.

Dry Mix Joint Sand Stabilizer: Joint sand treated with chemicals that when placed in contact with water, activates them to bind together the sand particles. This stabilizes the joint sand, reduces its permeability, sand loss and helps prevent weeds.

Edge Paver: Can be bought ready made with a straight side or can be cut straight.

Edge Restraint: An edging that provides support and holds pavers in place, can be hidden or exposed.

Efflorescence: The white hazy discharge, consisting of calcium carbonate. It appears on the surface of your pavements, it is a natural occurrence, reacting to the materials used in the pavement. It can disappear over time, or there are cleaning products that will help to eliminate the problem.

Engraved Pavers: Pavers that are engraved with names, messages, images and logos, with the use of stencils and metal plates or have been manufactured to order.

Erosion: The process of wearing rocks, sands, soils, through the effects of water, wind, ice and gravity. The displacement of solids.

Exfiltration: When water is allowed movement through the base material and into the soil underneath.

False Joints: Otherwise known as dummy joints. Lines and grooves that appear on the surface of concrete pavers, which can add to the patterned effect.

Fines: Very fine silt and clay particles found in soil.

Finished Grade: The final elevation of a soil, base, or pavement surface which is often indicated on construction drawings. Also Finish Elevation.

Flash: A thin, brittle layer of cement around the bottom edges or at the top edges of a paver composed of cement, typically due to minor leakage of liquid cement between elements of the mold assembly. Also known as Flange.

Flexible Pavement: A pavement structure which maintains intimate contact with and distributes loads to the subgrade. The base course materials rely on aggregate interlock, particle friction, and cohesion for stability.

Flexural Strength: A property of a paver or slab that indicates its ability to resist failure in bending.

Flexible Pavement: A pavement that maintains and allows for the distribution of loads to the subgrade.

Freeze-Thaw Durability: Depicts how well pavers stand up to freeze-thaw cycles, water saturation and salt filtration.

Frost Action: The effects of freeze-thaw conditions on pavers.

Frost Heave: The lifting up of pavers due to the effects of ice, accumulation and expansion.

Geogrids: Placed between the soil and the base material to reduce rutting, by providing soil stability under heavy loads. They can be two dimensional and three dimensional.

Geotextiles: Made from woven and unwoven plastic fibers, and used for the separation and protection and drainage between the layers of paved surfaces.

Gradation: Specified particle sizes of sand, soil and aggregate, distributed by mass.

Grade: (noun) Usually expressed in percentages, it is the slope of a finished surface; (verb) is to finish off the surface with a piece of equipment or by hand.

Granite: A very hard, granular, crystalline, igneous rock, formed at great depths and pressures, consisting mainly of quartz, mica, and feldspar and often used as a building stone.

Gravel: The by product of eroded riverbed rocks, gravel is a culmination of very fine grained particles of rock, sometimes referred to as a type of soil.

Herringbone Pattern: Is a type of pattern in which pavers can be laid, in either 45”or 90”rotation, where the joints are no longer than 1 ½ pavers.

ICPI: The Interlocking Concrete Paver Institute is recognized as a leading contributor for establishing paver industry standards.

Impervious Cover: Surfaces that do not allow rainfall to infiltrate into the soil such as pavements, roofs, sidewalks, driveways, etc.

Infiltration Rate: The rate at which water moves through a soil tested in the field. Measured in inches per hour or meters per second. See ASTM D 3385 and 5093 and compare to Permeability.

Interlock: Frictional forces between paving units that prevent them from rotating, or moving horizontally or vertically in relation to each other; also defined as the inability of a concrete paver to move independently of its neighbors. The friction forces enable load transfer among the paving units. The three kinds of load transfer are vertical interlock, horizontal interlock and rotational interlock. Vertical interlock is achieved by shear transfer of loads to surrounding units through sand in the joints. Horizontal interlock is primarily achieved through the use of laying patterns that disperse forces from braking and accelerating vehicles. The most effective laying patterns for maintaining horizontal interlock are herringbone patterns. Rotational interlock is maintained by the pavers being of sufficient thickness, placed closely together, and being restrained by a stationary edge such as a curb.

Interlocking Concrete Pavement: A system of paving consisting of discrete, hand-sized paving units with either rectangular or dentated shapes manufactured from concrete. Either type of shape is placed in an interlocking pattern, compacted into coarse bedding sand, the joints filled with sand and compacted again to start interlock. The paving units and bedding sand are placed over an unbound or bound aggregate layer. Also called concrete block pavement.

Interlocking Concrete Paver Institute (ICPI): Recognized as a leading contributor for establishing paver industry standards.

Joint: The spaces between paver units which are typically filled with sand.

Joint Filling Sand: The process where sand is used to fill spaces between the pavers.

Joint Sand Stabilizer: A dry or liquid solution that promotes joint sand stabilization, and prevents weeds growing, loosing sand and reduces the permeability of the joint sand.

Joint Sand: Sand that is swept into the openings between the pavers to fill up the joints.

Joint Spacing: The distance between the sides of the pavers.

K-Pattern: A paving pattern with one square unit surrounded by rectangular units.

Layer Coefficient: A number that represents the strength of the material, per inch of thickness, of a pavement layer.

Laying Pattern: The sequence in which the pavers are installed, creating a geometric pattern. There are many patterns available to choose from.

Lift: A layer of compacted soil fill or aggregate.

Lippage: The vertical distance measured in height between pavers.

Limestone: A sedimentary rock, composed of the mineral calcite, formed through the decomposition of marine organisms.

Marble: A metamorphosed limestone composed of pure calcite.

Mechanical Installation: When pavers are laid with the use of machinery, this method increases the rate of paving.

Modulus of Elasticity or Elastic Modulus: The measurement of the ratio of stress to strain on a material, due to load conditions.

Mexican Paver: Typically a hand made clay pavers.

Moisture Content: The weighed percentage of water contained in the pores of the soil, base and sand.

Mortar: A combined mix containing cement paste and fine aggregate (sand).

Mortar Sand: Sand used in mortar sometimes referred to sand mixed with mortar.

Mosaics: When pavers are used to create maps, murals or patterns to emphasize and area.

Multi-Colored Paver (Color Blend): A paver that has a combination of two or more colors.

Observation Well: A pipe that is used to observe the filtration of water by the underlying soils.

Open-graded Aggregate Base: This type of aggregate has large spaces between particles, making it ideal for use as a drainage course.

Organic Soil: Spongy soils, usually made from vegetative matter, and are not suitable for construction use.

Outlet: Where water is dispersed from an open-graded base through pipes into a storm sewer system.

Pavement Performance: The service ability of a pavement under load bearing conditions.

Pavement Rehabilitation: Includes any work undertaken to improve and pro-long the life of a pavement, such as; removing and replacing.

Pavement Structure: The implementation of a sub base, base and surface material, to accommodate the needs of traffic and load bearings.

Paver Extractor: A tool used to pick a paver and remove it from the surface.

Paver Splitter: Used for the cutting of pavers, may be hand operated or machine operated, and is sometimes hydraulically assisted.

Performance Period: The time period for which a pavement should last, before needing service, usually measured in years.

Permeability: The rate at which water passes through the soil, usually measured in a laboratory.

Permeable Interlocking Pavement: A pavement system where a grid-like structure is installed, then vegetation is planted in the openings, which allows the infiltration, storage and drainage of runoff water.

Pervious or Permeable Surfaces: Those that allow the infiltration of rainfall, such as; vegetated covered areas.

Plate Compactor: Used to compact soils, base materials, sand beddings and pavers, to promote interlocking. Otherwise known as a plate vibrator.

Porosity: The total volume of the base divided by the volume of voids in the base.

Precast Concrete Pavers: Manufactured paving stones, made from sand, gravel, pebbles and cement.

Retention Pond: Where runoff is collected and stored at full capacity, when excess water runoff occurs, it will then flow into the storm sewer system.

Rip Rap: Erosion control measure, consisting of stones being placed over the eroded area, used for prevention.

Rubber Pavers: manufactured pavers made from 100% recycled tire rubber.

Running or Stretcher Bond: A type of laying pattern for pavers, where there are continuous joint lines in one direction, and then four pavers staggered from one row onwards.

Rutting: The result of repetitive traffic use and load bearing. Faults occur due to exceeding pavements capacity.

Sand: Made from the natural eroding of rocks. A granular type of material, consisting of various edged particles.

Sandstone: A sedimentary rock, comprising of feldspar and quartz particles.

Screeding: The action of leveling sand bedding, using wood or metal pieces to assist.

Screenings: A residual product, usually a by-product of crushed; rock, cobble, gravel or concrete.

Sealer: A liquid solution which coats and protects your pavers and pavements. Sealers help with waterproofing, color fading, mold and mildew, and staining.

Sediment: Any sediment, such as soil, that is transported and deposited due to the effects of water, wind, gravity and ice.

Shrinkage: When the volume of soil is reduced due to the reduction in water content.

Silt: Extremely fine soil.

Skid Resistance: Measuring the friction of a surface exposed to rubber tires.

Slate: A finely grained, sedimentary rock, consisting of clay or volcanic ash, which has been foliated into layers.

Slip Resistance: The measurement of the resistance of a surface to users slipping and sliding over the surface.

Soil Separation Fabric: See geotextile.

Soil Stabilization: Treatments to increase the stabilization of a mass of soil. Can be chemically treated, or mechanically treated with the use of geogrids and geotextiles.

Solid Color Paver: By adding iron oxide or metal oxide pigments to a concrete mix, a paver with one color is created.

Spall: As a result of weather or pressure, pavers may chip and fragment.

Stained Concrete: When concrete is color stained to create vibrant colored finishes.

Stamped Concrete: Concrete that has been stamped with a pattern.

Standing Screed: An aluminum screed with handles, which allows the person to pull it across the sand bedding, whilst standing up.

Stone Pavers: usually natural stone pavers such as limestone, granite, and bluestone- typically irregular in size and shape.

Sub-Base: Commonly made from stone pieces, larger than that in the base materials. It is a layer of particular thickness, placed on a subgrade, giving support to the base material.

Subgrade: The soil base, which the pavement structure is constructed upon.

Tactile Pavers: A paver detectable by sight impaired persons due to change in color or texture from surrounding surfaces. Changes in texture are achieved with detectable warnings.

Tensile Strength: Maximum unit stress which a paver is capable of resisting under axial tensile loading, based on the cross-sectional area of the specimen before loading.

Texture or Architectural Finish: The pavers surface finish variations as a result of different manufacturing methods, such as; tumbling, washing, flame treating, blasting and hammering.

Topsoil: The surface soil, normally containing organic matter.

Travertine: A natural stone, it is white and is a form of calcium carbonate and is very hard in texture.

Water-Cement Ratio: The weight of water divided by the weight of cement in a concrete mixture. Concrete pavers typically have a water-cement ratio of 0.27 to 0.33, lower than ordinary concrete, which contributes to strength and durability.

Wearing Course: Pavement surfacing consisting of segmental concrete pavements and joint sand on a sand bedding layer.

Wearing Surface: The top surface that contacts traffic.

Weave or Parquet: A laying pattern where two or more pavers are placed side-by-side. Adjacent pavers are placed side-by-side, but turned 90° and alternated 90° throughout the pattern.

Weep Screed: The metal installed around the bottom of your home behind the stucco to allow any water that gets past the stucco to safely exit. There should be a minimum clearance of 4 inches between the weep screed and the pavers.

 

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